01 September 2014

Pyruvate Regulation in the Starvation State

   During the Starvation State, the Liver attempts to produce Glucose for the rest of the Body. The primary source of Carbon Molecules in these new glucose molecules comes from Amino Acid Skeletons, while the Primary Energy source in the Liver is from the Oxidation of Fatty Acids into Acetyl-CoA
   To prevent Pyruvate from forming into Acetyl-CoA, the Cells have to use allosteric inhibition to stop Pyruvate Dehydrogenase (PDH) from acting on Pyruvate.

- This video explores the source of Pyruvate and Reducing Equivalents in the TCA cycle of the liver during the starvation state.
- This Video Also Explores Allosteric regulation of PDH

Anaplerotic Reactions Replinish TCA Intermediates

Anaplerotic reactions are reactions that replinish intermediates in a biochemical cycle. In the TCA cycle, Anaplerotic reactions replenish intermediates such as Succinyl CoA, Oxaloacetate, Malate, and others.


-This video explores the difference between Anaplerotic reactions and Cataplerotic Reations. Pyruvate is explored in three anaplerotic reactions producing either Acetyl CoA, Oxaloacetate, and Alpha-Ketogluterate
Odd Chain Fatty Acids can contribute to Anaplerotic reactions such as Triheptanoin conversion to Succinate.

Introduction to the TCA/Kreb's Cycle


The TriCarboxylic Acid (TCA) cycle, also known as the Citric Acid Cycle (CAC), or the Kreb's Cycle, is used extensively in every cell to produce electrons for the Electron Transport Chain (ETC).


 -This video looks at the sources of Acetyl-CoA, which feed into the TCA cycle, as well as various enzymes involved