24 September 2014

How Ketones are Made

Acetyl CoA should be combined with oxaloacetate to enter the TCA cycle.
When Oxaloacetate is unavailable or when the enzymes Citrate Synthase is deactivated, then Acetyl CoA cannot enter the TCA cycle. Where does it go?

Ketones are four-carbon molecules that carrie the acetyl group of acetyl CoA

Three acetyl CoA molecules are combined to make 3-Hydroxy-Beta-Methylglutaryl-CoA (HMG-CoA)
HMG-CoA is broken into a molecule of Acetoacetate (4 carbons) and Acetyl CoA (2 carbons)
NADH can reduce acetoacetate to Beta-Hydroxybuterate.

Acetone is created by the spontaneous decarboxylation of acetoacetate.  (Fruity breath)

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