09 December 2012

BIO 105 Organismal Biology Unit 1 Exam and Answers

1 Which of the following are characterisitics of life:
A. Complexity
B. Use energy
C. Cellular Organization
D. Change over time
E E. All of the above
2 Which of the following lists the steps in a good scientific investigation in the proper order:
a. Observation, experiment, Hypothesis, conclusion, communication
B b. Observation, hypothesis, experiment, conclusion, communication
c. Hypothesis, communication, observation, conclusion, experiment
d. Communication, hypothesis, observation, conclusion, experiment
e. Hypothesis, conclusion, observation, experiment, communcation
3 Which of the following sequences represents the hierarchy of biological organization from the least to the most complex level?
A. organelle, tissue, biosphere, ecosystem, population, organism
B. Cell, community, population, organ system, molecule, organelle
C. organism, community, biosphere, molecule, tissue, organ
D. Ecosystem, cell, population, tissue, organism, organ system
E E. Molecule, Cell, Organ System, Population, Ecosystem, Biosphere
4 T/F: 
TRUE Science requires that hypotheses be testable & Falsifiable and that observations be theoretically repeatable.
5 Why is a control in a well-designed Scientific experiment so important?
A A. Because it demonstrates that the experimental variables (the only variables that differs between the control and treatment groups) is the likely cause of any observed differences.
B. Because it proves or disproves our hypothesis without error
C. Because it norrows our P-value from 0.05 to 0.001
D. Controls are really not needed in experiments
6 The main purpose of any single experiment is to:
A. Obtain accurate quantitative measurements
B. Prove unambiguously that a particular hypothesis is correct
C. Avoid comparative analysis
D. Answer as many questions as possible
E E. Test a prediction that is based on a hypothesis
7 Which cellular organelle contains the organism's DNA (genetic material)?
A. Cell Walls
B B. Nucleus
C. Cell membranes
D. Chloroplasts
E. Ribosomes
8 T/F
FALSE Using the microscope to observe a one-celled organism in a water sample, first you focus under low power, then you go to high power and use the coarse focus to bring the object back into focus:
9 Which of the following questions cannot be answered by means of the hypothesis-prediction method?
A. Are bees more attracted to red roses than to yellow roses?
B B. Are red roses more beautiful than yellow roses?
C. Why are red roses red
D. Do red roses bloom earlier than yellow roses?
E. Are red roses more susceptible to mildew than yellow roses?
10 Which of the following can result from a scientific investigation?
A. refinement of the experimental design
B. Formulation of new questions that result in additional experimentation
C. Use of statistical tests to evaluate the significance of the results
D. Experiments repeated and verified by others
E E. All of the Above
11 Which of the following best represents a null hypothesis?
A. I think that men are taller than women
B B. No difference exists between the mean height of college men and college women
C. A difference exists between the mean height of college men and college women
D. I think women are taller than men
12 When atoms share a pair of electrons, this is called a _________Bond.
A A. Covalent
B. Hydrogen
C. Ionic
D. Government
E. Atomic
13 ______ are macromolecules that include cell membranes, steriods, and fatty acids:
A. ions
B. Amino Acids
C C. Lipids
D. Sugars
E. Proteins
14 These surround the nucleus, determine the chemical behavior of atoms, have a negative charge, and carry energy:
A. protons
B. photons
C. neutrons
D D. electrons
15 Atoms with opposite charges are attracted to each other forming a(n) _____ bond
A. Covalent
B. Hydrogen
C C. Ionic
D. Government
E. Atomic
16 T/F
FALSE Larger cells have a higher surface to volume ratio, making them more efficient at moving substances across the cell membrane
17 _____ are the sites of protein synthesis
A. Chloroplasts
B. Mitochondria
C. Nucleus
D. Cell membranes
E E. Ribosomes
18 In water, the hydrogen end of the molecule has a slight positive charge and the oxygen end has a slight negative charge, making water a _____ molecule:
A. Covalent
B B. Polar
C. Ionic
D. Macro -
E. Non-Polar
19 Which of the following store and transmit hereditary information:
A. Carbohydrates
B. Lipids
C. Proteins
D D. Nucleic Acids
20 Hydrogen Bonds are:
A. Strong bonds between hydrogen atoms
B B. Weak "attractions" between two polar molecules or between different parts of the same molecule
C. Formed between two atoms when they share electrons
D. Formed when you heat proteins, changing their shape
21 This cellular organelle has pigment that absorbs energy from the sun (light) and uses this energy along with CO2 and water to make carbohydrates
A. Cell membrane
B. Vacuole
C. Nucleus
D. Ribosomes
E E. Chloroplasts
22 In the introduction to the pond lab, we talked about small, often microscopic, organisms that live up in the water column called:
A. Benthic organisms or benthos
B B. Plankton
C. Nekton
D. Primary consumers
E. Secondary Consumers
23 Using the diagram of a microscope http://www.ekcsk12.org/faculty/jbuckley/lelab/microscopeuselab_files/image001.gif , identify structure number 1:
A A. Ocular
B. Objective
C. Condenser
D. Stage 
E. Diaphragm
24 This figure represents: http://img.tfd.com/dorland/distribution_normal.jpg 
A. A skewed curve
B. A nonparametric statistic
C C. A normal Curve
D. The amount of nodules in treatment 3
25 Which of the following best represents one standard deviation in this figure:
A. Distance between 0 and 3
B. Distance between -1 and 1
C C. Distance between 0 and 1
D. Standard deviation is not represented on a curve, only in tables
26 Which of the following best represents the mean of this data set: http://img.tfd.com/dorland/distribution_normal.jpg
A. 3
B B. 0
C. -3
D. The mean would actually be the average of 1, 2, and 3
27 These data are usually integers; can only take one value (e.g., # of eggs laid or # of spines on a fish
A. Continuous data
B B. Discrete (meristic) data
28 The primary objective of statistical analysis is to infer characteristics (Parameters) of a group of data (population) by analyzing the characteristics of ____ of that group
A. data
B. A cohort
C C. A sample
D. All 
E. none of the above
29 These data have a constant interval size but not a true zero (e.g., temperature)
A. Ratio Scale
B B. Interval Scale
C. Nominal Scale
D. Ordinal Scale
30 These data are classified by some quality or attribute (e.g., sex, color).
A. Ratio Scale
B. Interval Scale
C C. Nominal Scale
D. Ordinal Scale
31 Observe the following scatterplot. Does it represent a positive or negative correlation?
A A. Positive
B. Negative
C. Neither, because there is no correlation
D. Neither, because you cannot show a correlation with a scatterplot
32 Which of the following statements about statistical analysis in science is false:
A A. Statistical methods are applied to data in order to prove that the null hypothesis is incorrect
B. Statistical tests analyze variation and calculate the probability that observed differences in an experiment could be due to random variation
C. Statistical tests can be used to evaluate both comparative and controlled experiments
D. Scientists generally conclude that the differences they measure are significant if the statistical test shows that the probability of error is 5 percent or lower (P<=0.05)
E. The power of science derives from absolute dependence on evidence that comes from reproducible and quantifiable observations.
33 A haploid cell is a cell
A. in which the genes are arranged haphazardly
B B. containing only one copy of each chromosome
C. that has resulted from the process of mitosis
D. with twice the number of chromosomes of a diploid cell
E. None of the above
34 The following diagram illustrates Which phase of Meiosis?
A A. Metaphase I
B. Metaphase II
35 When meiosis produces eggs (ova) in the female ovary, we call this
A. spermatogenesis
B. Fertilization
C C. oogenesis
D. Eggogenesis
36 Alternate forms of a gene are called:
A. Proteins
B B. Alleles
C. Nucleotides
D. Recessive
37 Replication of DNA occurs in:
A. G1
B B. S Phase
C. G2
D. M phase
E. Interphase
38 Which of the following statements about mitosis is true?
A. The chromosome number in the resulting cells is halved
B. DNA replication is completed in prophase
C. Crossing over occurs during prophase
D D. Two genetically identical daugther cells are formed
E. It consists of two nuclear divisions
39 During meiosis, the homologous chromosomes separate during:
A A. Anaphase I
B. Anaphase II
C. the S Phase
D. synapsis
E. Telophase II
40 If I start with an eight-chromosome cell, how many cells do I finish with after meiosis, and how many chromosomes are in each cell?
A. 2 Cells, 16 Chromosomes in each
B. 4 cells, 8 Chromosomes in each
C. 2 cells, 8 Chromosomes in each
D D. 4 cells, 4 Chromosomes in each
E. 8 cells, 4 Chromosomes in each
41 Crossing over, where one chromosome exchanges DNA with another occurs in:
A A. meiosis I
B. Calvin cycle
C. prophase of Mitosis
D. Metaphase of mitosis
E. meiosis II
42 Mitosis would be used for all of the following except:
A. Growth
B. replacing dead cells
C C. Making sperm
D. Asexual reproduction
E. it would be used in all of the above
43 When homologous chromosomes line up in metaphase I of meiosis,
A. All maternal chromosomes are on one side, paternal chromosomes on the other
B. Maternal and paternal chromosomes alternate
C. Maternal chromosomes are on top, paternal on the bottom
D D. Maternal and paternal chromosomes may be on either side
E. Paternal chromosomes are on top, maternal on the bottom
44 If two alleles for a trait are the same, the individual is called _________ for that trait.
A A. homozygous
B. heterozygous
C. recessive
D. dominant
45 Flower color in snapdragons shows incomplete dominance. The two alleles are for red and white flowers. A heterozygous plant would have:
A A. Pink flowers
B. Some red, some white flowers
C. All white flowers
D. All red flowers
46 At a certain locus of the human genome, 200 different alleles exist in the population. Regardless, each person has at most _____ allele(s).
A. 1
B B. 2
C. 100
D. 200
E. 400
47 The following photo was taken of a cell in a fish embryo. Which of the following terms best applies?
A. Prophase
B. Meiosis
C. Cytokinesis
D D. Metaphase
48 Which of the following methods was not used by Mendel in his study of the genetics of the garden pea?
A. Maintenance of true-breeding lines
B. Cross-pollination
C C. Microscopy
D. Production of hybrid plants
E. Quantitative analysis of results
49 Mendel's crossing of spherical-seeded pea plants with wrinkled-seeded pea plants resulted in progeny that all had spherical seeds. This indicates that the wrinkled-seed trait is:
A. codominant
B. dominant
C C. Recessive
D. both a and b
E. Both a and c
50 Classical albinism resulted from a recessive allele. Which of the following is the expected ratio for the progeny when a normally pigmented male with an albino father has children with an albino woman?
A. 3/4 normal, 1/4 albino
B. 3/4 albino, 1/4 normal
C C. 1/2 normal, 1/2 albino
D. All normal
E. All albino
51 One of the major contributions of Mendel to the study of genetics was:
A A. the use of quantitative approach to analyze data
B. a complete description of the process of meiosis
C. the observation that phenotypes are affected by the environment
D. the discovery that dominance is always complete
E. the finding that heritable traits combine or blend together
52 If an infant born to a mother with blood type O is also type O, possible phenotypes for the father are:
A. O or A
B. A or B
C. O only
D D. O, A, or B
E. impossible to determine
53 When a given trait is the result of multigene action, interactions between genes (i.e., they act on each other) determine the phenotype, often resulting in traits with continuous variation within a population (e.g., height of college students).
A. epistasis
B. epigenesis
C. dominance
D. incomplete dominance
E E. None of the above
54 A sequence of DNA nucleotides on a chromosome; the basic unit of heredity
A. Allele
B B. Gene
C. Polymer
D. Protein
E. Chromosome
55 ABO blood types in humans are examples of ______ traits.
A A. codominant
B. Continuous
C. Sex-linked
D. incomplete dominance
E. coevolutionary
56 I used sick-Cell anemia as an example of a _______trait because it codes for a blood disorder and provides some resistance to malaria
A. codominant
B. Polygenic
C. Epistatic
D D. Pleiotropic
57 If left thumb on top is the dominant phenotype for the thumb-crossing gene, what are the possible genotypes that would present that phenotype?
A. L
C. ll
D. Ll or ll
E E. LL or Ll
58 When an individual has two different alleles for a trait, they are said to be
A. dominant
B B. heterozygous
C. Homozygous
D. Clones
E. recessive
59 The normal chromosomes number for humans is 46. How many chromosomes does a human sperm or egg cell have?
A. 28
B. 46
C. 92
D D. 23
E. 23-46 (it varies greatly)
60 Two carriers (heterozygotes) of a recessive genetic disease marry. What are the chances that their children will have the disease?
A. 0%
B B. 25%
C. 50%
D. 75%
E. 100%
61 Chromosomes exist in the cells of diploid organisms as pairs, called _____, which carry information (genes) about the same trait at the same locations. One chromosome of each pair is inherited from the mother and the other from the father.
A A. Homologous chromosomes
B. replicated Chromosomes
C. Unreplicated chromosomes
D. Sister Chromatids
62 Hypotheses that stand the test of time - their predictions often tested and seldom rejected (i.e., they hare supported by a large body of evidence) - are sometimes combined into general statements called:
A. educated guesses
B. Scientific experiments
C. Variables
D D. Theories
E. none of the above

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