09 December 2012

BIO 105 Organismal Biology Unit 2 Exam and Answers

1   T/F
FALSE   The energy supplying the "Ecotubs" in labe is coming directly from photosynthesis.
2 Which of these naturalists synthesized a concept of natural selection independently of Darwin?
A. Charles Lyell
B. Gregor Mendel
C C. Alfred Wallace
D. John Henslow
E. Thomas Malthus
3 The evolution of similar features in non-related organisms (e.g., sugar glider, a marsupial, in Australia and flying squirrel in North America, a rodent).
A. Coevolution
B B. Convergent Evolution
C. Natural Selection
D. Co-Selection
E. Directional Selection
4 Occassionally populations may be drastically reduced in size because of drought, disease, or some other factor. This reduction in population size also reduces genetic variability in the population that survives. This mechanism of genetic change is known as ____.
A. Artificial selection
B. Natural selection
C. Sexual Selection
D. genetic drift
E E. Genetic bottleneck
5 Is genetic drift more likely to occur in a large or small population?
A. Large
B B. Small
6 Adaptations are:
A. the result of natural selection
B. features that give an organism a better chance at surviving in its environment
C. the variations that have been selected as beneficial to the organism
D. Large structures such as wings as well as small structures such as enzymes
E E. All of the above
7 The fact that after only about 5 generations the number of spots was reduced when guppies were moved to a high predation pool is most likely the result of:
A. sexual selection
B. Genetic Drift
C C. Natural Selection
D. Artificial Selection
E. Genetic Bottleneck
8 When guppies were moved from high predation pools to low predation pools, the males became more brightly colored with more spots. This was most likely the result of:
A A. Sexual selection
B. Genetic Drift
C. Natural Selection
D. Artificial Selection
E. Genetic Bottleneck
9 Today's diversity of dog breeds is primarily due to:
A. natural selection
B. Original differences in the wild ancestor
C. Genetic Drift
D. Mutations
E E. Artificial Selection
10 Darwin (and scientists today) believed that the major driving force in evolution was:
A. Sexual selection
B B. Natural Selection
C. Genetic Drift
D. Artificial Selection
E. Genetic Bottleneck
11 The evolution of antibiotic resistance in bacteria is a good example of(see figure: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/9/92/Directional_selection_after.svg/171px-Directional_selection_after.svg.png ) 
A A. directional selection
B. Genetic drift
C. Genetic Bottleneck
D. Stabilizing Selection
E. Sexual selection
12 In some populations, allele frequencies may change due to chance alone. This is equivalent to random error in statistics (the coin-flipping example). This mechanism of genetic change is known as ________. 
A. Artificial Selection
B. Natural Selection
C. Sexual Selection
D D. Genetic Drift
E. Genetic Bottleneck
13 Species are populations of actually or potentially interbreeding organisms that are reproductively isolated from other such populations.
A A. The Biological Species Concept
B. The Phylogentic (lineage) Species concept
C. The Cladistic Species Concept
D. The Sexual Selection Concept
E. The Morphological Species Concept
NOTE 1: This question was thrown out
NOTE 2: The actual answer key has "B", which I'm sure is wrong http://evolution.berkeley.edu/evosite/evo101/VA1BioSpeciesConcept.shtml
14 Male peacocks have large ,beautiful tail feathers whereas females do not. This difference is due to:
A. Convergent evolution
B B. Sexual Selection
C. Stabilizing selection
D. Natural Selection
E. Artificial Selection
15 The survivorship of human babies of different birth weights illustrates:
A. gene flow
B. Genetic drift
C. Directional Selection
D. Sexual Selection
E E. Stabilizing Selection
16 Which of the following statements is false:
A. Populations of individuals evolve
B B. Evolution and natural selection are interchangeable terms
C. Developmental change requires genetic change
D. Evolutionary change requires genetic change
E. All of the above are true; none is false
17 The sizes of horns in males of a particular beetle have an interesting distribution: the highest frequencies are around 15 millimeters and 30 millimeters, with few individuals in between. Based on this observation, which of the following modes of selection is moste likely to be operating on these horns?
A. Stabilizing selection
B. Directional selectoin
C. Concentrated selection
D D. Disruptive selection
E. Purifying selection
18 ______is the differential survival/reproduction of individuals (genotypes) caused by factors in the environment
A A. Natural selection
B. Evolution
C. Genetic Drift
D. Sexual Selection
19 Which of these evolutionary agents is most consistent at causing populations to become better suited to their environments over the course of generations?
A. Mutation
B. Sexual Selection
C. Gene flow
D D. Natural Selection
E. Genetic Drift
20 Genetic Change in a population of organisms over time (generations) or "descent with modification" 
A. Natural Selection
B B. Evolution
C. Genetic Drift
D. Sexual Selection
E. Artificial Selection
21 There are five generally recognized mass extinction events. The ____ mass extinction claimed about 96% of marine animal species and defines the boundary between the Paleozoic and Mesozoic ares (about 251 mya).
A. Ordisilurian
B B. Permian
C. Devonian
D. Triassic
E. Cretaceous
22 The cladogram indicates that species _____ is a Vertebrate. http://www.ib.usp.br/evolibrary/images/evo/patterns_intro.gif
A. Shark
B. Rabbit
C. Crocodile
D. Bird
E E.All species on this diagram is a vertebrate
23 A clade of the highlighted organisms would be called ______ because it does not include all organisms with a common ancestor 
A. Monophyletic
B B. Polyphyletic
C. Paraphyletic
D. Diphyletic
E. Dichotomous
24 The diagram indicates that hair is a _____ that defines mammals
A. Ancestral Trait
B B. Shared derived trait
C. Genotype
D. Monophyletic
E. Allele
25 This type of speciation requires that there be a physical separation of populations
A. Sympatric speciation
B B. Allopatric Speciation
C. Evolutionary speciation
D. Genetic Drift Speciation
E. Polypoidy Speciation
26 During drought years on the Galapagos, small, easily eaten seeds become rare, leaving mostly large, hard-cased seeds that only birds with large beaks can eat. If a drought persists for several years, what should one expect to result from natural selection?
A. Small birds gaining larger beaks by exercising their mouths?
B. Small birds mutating their beak genes with the result that later-generation offspring have larger beaks
C. Small birds anticipating the long drought and eating more to gain weight and, consequently, growing larger beaks
D D. More small-beaked birds dying than larger-beaked birds. The offspring produced in subsequent generations have a higher percentage of birds with large beaks
E. Larger birds eating less so smaller birds can survive
27 Donkeys and horses are not the same species because the hybrid young they produce are:
A. Deformed
B. Fertile
C C. Sterile
D. Large
E. Ugly
28 What is the reproductive barrier -- One species lives only in tree holes; another species lives only in streams:
A. behavioral
B. gametic
C C. habitat
D. temporal
E. mechanical
29 What is the reproductive barrier -- One species mates at the season when daylight is increasing from 13 hours to 13 hours and 15 minutes; another species mates at the season when daylight is increasing from 14 hours to 14 hours and 15 minutes.
A. Behavioral
B. Gametic
C. Habitat
D D. Temporal
E. Mechanical
30 What is the reproductive barrier -- Males of one species have a higher pitched and faster call than males of the other species.
A A. Behavioral 
B. Gametic
C. Habitat
D. Temporal
E. Mechanical
31 A species may originate from an accident during cell division (meiosis) that results in extra sets of chromosomes.
32 Some have postulated that periods of evolutionary change can occur very rapidly (at least over geological time), separated by long periods of stasis (relatively little change), or the theory of _____.
A. Gradualism
B. Natural Selection
C. Mass extinction
D D. Punctuated equilibrium
33 Which of these conditions should completely prevent the occurrence of natural selection in a population over time:
A A. All variation between individuals is due only to environmental factors
B. The environment is changing at a relatively slow rate
C. The population size is large
D. The population lives in a habitat where there are no competing species present
E. None of the above
34 Of the following anatomical structures, which is homologous to the wing of a bird?
A. Dorsal fin of a shark
B. Hindlimb of a kangaroo
C. Wing of a butterfly
D. Tail fin of a flying fish
E E. Flipper of a cetacean (whale)
35 Which of the following modes of selection operates when individuals at both extremes of the distribution have the highest fitness?
A. Stabilizing selection
B. Directional Selection
C C. Disruptive selection
D. Both A and B
E. Both B and C
36 In light of the definition of evolution, which of the following is NOT capable of evolving?
A. a population of deer
B. the color of a population of moths
C C. your biology instructor
D. a population of birds 
E. the bacteria in your large intestine
37 If the original finches htat had been blown over to the Galapagos from South America had already been genetically different from teh parental population of South American finches, even before adapting to the Galapagos, this would have been an example of:
A. Natural Selection
B. Bottleneck effect
C C. Founder's effect
D. All three of these
E. both A and C
38 How might speciation occur almost instantaneously?
A. Through nondisjunction and the resulting polyploidy (e.g., a diploid organism becoming tetraploid)
B. Through a mutation, particularly one that affects reproduction and survivorship
C. Through traits acquired over the life of an organism
D D. Both A and B
E. Both B and C
39 T/F
Natural Selection acts on individuals, but only populations evolve
40 Natural selection is based on all of the following except
A. Genetic variation exists within populations
B. The best-adapted individuals tend to leave the most offspring
C. Individuals who survive longer tend to leave the most offspring
D. Populations tend to produce more individuals than the environment can support
E E. Individuals adapt to their environments and, thereby, evolve
41 In seedcracker finches from Cameroon, small- and large-billed birds specialize in cracking soft and hard seeds, respectively. If long-term climatic change resulted in all seeds becoming hard, what type of selection would then operate on the finch population?
A. Disruptive selection
B B. Directional selection
C. Stabilizing selection
D. Sexual selection
E. No selection would operate
42 A. occurs at such a slow pace that it always requires hundreds of thousands or millions of years.
B. Occurs only by the accumulation of genetic change over vast expanses of time
C. Must begin with the geographic isolation of a small, frontier population
D. and microevolution are synonymous.
E E. can involve changes to a single gene.
43 Evolutionary changes may result from heterochrony, or a change in the rate or timing of developmental events. One example of heterochrony that we covered in class was the retention of juvenile traits in a sexually mature organism (e.g., in certain salamanders). This is known as
a) adaptive radiation
b) extirpation
C c) paedomorphosis
d) sexual dimorphism
e) directional selection
44 The Cretaceous mass extinction occurred about 65 million years ago and eliminated more than half of all marine species as well as many terrestrial groups, including the dinosaurs. Evidence suggests that this event was caused by 
a) humans hunting them to extinction
b) enormous volcanic eruptions in Siberia
c) global warming
d) a viral pandemic
E e) the impact of a large asteroid or comet.
45 ___is similarity resulting from common ancestry.
A a) Homology
b) Analogy
c) Homoplasy
d) Heterozygous
e) Homeotic
46 _____is the relative genetic contribution of an individual to succeeding generations, or the relative number of an individual's genes in the gene pool.
A a) Fitness
b) Sexual selection
c) Natural selection
d) Genetic Drift
e) Genetic bottleneck
47 When two populations are separated spatially (e.g., by a geographic barrier such as a river or mountains) or ecologically, they may start to diverge into two separate species because of different environments and lack of genetic exchange. This process is known as
A a) allopatric speciation
b) stabilizing selection
c) postzygotic separation
d) genetic drift
e) sympatric speciation
48 Two species of birds live in the same area but utilize different trees in that area and therefore rarely if ever interbreed. This is an example of
A a) ecological isolating mechanism
b) behavioral isolating mechanism
c) temporal isolating mechanism
d) mechanical isolating mechanism
e) geographical isolating mechanism
49 When two species evolve in response to each other (e.g., plants and their pollinators), we call this
a) convergent evolution
b) bievolution
C c) coevolution
d) parasitism
e) adaptive radiation
50 In the pond lab we discussed different categories of organisms, including those that live on the bottom called
a) Plankton
B b) Benthic organisms
c) Nekton
d) Littoral organisms
e) Decomposers
51 Darwin read Charles Lyell's book and learned
a) That more organisms (in this case, people) are typically born than the resources (e.g., food) can support.
b) The 5 major mass extinctions were all followed by periods of adaptive radiation
c) That it was possible to breed pigeons to the point where they had feathers on their feet.
D d) That the earth was probably much older (thousands and thousands of years) than previously thought.
e) Darwin never read Lyell's book because it was published years after Darwin died.
52 Darwin noted that humans have modified other species by selecting and breeding individuals with desired traits, a process called
a) natural selection
b) genetic drift
C c) artificial selection
d) sexual selection
e) differential selection
53 This type of symbiotic relationship is one in which one species benefits and the other is neutral or unaffected.
a) Parasitism
B b) Commensalism
c) Neutralism
d) Mutualism
e) Symbiotism
54 Observe the figure. Why is this not statistically significant (ANOVA, P:0.888)
a) The sample sizes were too small.
B b) There is too much variability as represented by the 95% confidence intervals.
c) Because 2 is the south side, not the east side.
d) These means are significantly different based on the significance value of 0.888.
e) None of the above
55 The above correlation is significant. Explain how I came to this conclusion. (P=0.009, R^2=0.181) but weak.
a) The R^2 value is much less than one.
b) The R^2 value is greater than zero.
c) The points are far from the regression line.
D d) Both a) and c)
e) Both b) and c)

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