09 December 2012

BIO 105 Organismal Biology Unit 3 Exam and Answers

Answers posted in the left column

1 How many soybean seeds did you plant in each pot for our experiment?
b b)2
e) It depended on the treatment; some pots had more than others.
2 This organism changed the course of Irish (and American) history by causing the potato famine in the mid 1800's.
a) HIV
b) Lyme disease
c) TB
d d) A Water mold (Oomycetes), Plrytophthora infestans
e) Dinoflagellate
3 Organisms that cannot produce their own food and therefore require an external source of organic molecules which they use to make new molecules and to provide themselves with a source of energy are called:
a) plants
b) algae
c c) heterotrophs
d) autotrophs
e) prokaryotes
4 In cladistic analyses, an ancestral trait is known as a
a) synapomorphy
b) apomorphy
c c) plesiomorphy
d) old trait
e) none ofthe above
5 Sexual reproduction is an advantage over asexual reproduction because it:
a a) increases genetic diversity, the raw material for evolutionary adaptation.
b) decreases genetic diversity, making populations more uniform
c) has been partially responsible for the greater diversity in Prokaryotes
d) increases the number of genes in the organisms practicing it each generation
e) none ofthe above
6 Some bacteria photosynthesize.
a a) True
b) False
7 Both organisms benefit in this symbiotic relationship.
a) Commensalism
b) Parasitism
c c) Mutualism
d) Communism
e) Epiphytism
8 Plants, animals, fungi, and bacteria are all eukaryotes.
a) True
b b) False
9 Why are some protist clades considered paraphyletic?
a) Because some of their bacterial ancestors are not included
b) Because they include more than one ancestor.
c) Because they don't include the birds.
d) Because some of their bacterial descendants were left out.
e e) Because we typically don't include the animals, plants, or fungi within these protist clades.
10 Diatoms and Brown algae (e,g., kelp) all belong to the clade
a) Excavata
b b) Stramenopiles
c) Rhizaria
d) Amoebozoans
e) Alveolates
11 Bacteria lack
a) DNA
b) cell (plasma) membranes
c c) membrane-bound organelles like chloroplasts and mitochondria
d) cytoplasm
e) cell walls
12 Which of the following are ways in which humans use algae directly or indirectly?
a) used as stabilizers in ice cream
b) can be found in paint and cosmetics
c) algae produce oxygen
d) some algae can be consumed as food
e e) all of the above
13 Viruses enter cells 3 ways. Bacterial viruses
a) enter through injuries to the cell wall
b) enter through endocytosis
c) enter through protein channels
d d) punch a hole through the cell wall and inject their DNA
14 Foraminiferans (Forams) and Radiolarians are amoeba-like organisms with thread-like pseudopodia and shells.
a) Excavata
b) Stramenopiles
c c) Rhizaria
d) Amoebozoans
e) Alveolates
15 Viruses have a ____and a_____
a)' DNA core; carbohydrate coat
b) DNA or RNA core; plasma membrane
c) Nucleus with DNA; lipid membrane
d d) DNA or RNA core;protein coat
16 The "Protists" (formerly Kingdom Protista) include all eukaryotic organisms that are not:
a) viruses or bacteria
b b) animals, fungi, or plants
c) photosynthetic
d) lichens
e) crustaceans
17 Paramecium is a cornmon and often-used example of a _____ which is part of the protist clade______
a) diatom; Alveolata
b) ciliate; Excavata
c) radiolarian; Rhizaria
d d) ciliate; Alveolata
e) none ofthe above, they are bacteria
18 Bacteria that have a cell wall covered with an outer membrane layer, and therefore are resistant to antibiotics, are called:
a) gram-positive
b b) gram-negative
c) HIV
d) chemoautotrophs
e) ciliates
19 Lyme disease is transmitted by
a) fleas
b) mosquitoes
c) atype offly
d) deer
e e) ticks
20 The Archaea include some members that live in the harshest conditions on Earth. For example,_____live in volcanic springs with near boiling water.
a) Photoautotrophs
b) Methanogens
c c) Extreme therrnophiles
d) Extreme halophiles
e) Chemoheterotrophs
21 Giardia, Trichomonas, and Euglena are three genera belonging to this clade.
a) Chromalveolata
b) Unikonta
c) Alveolata
d) Rhizaria
e e) Excavata
22 The fungi, animals, choanoflagellates, slime molds and amoebas all share a common ancestor and are therefore
grouped into a clade called
a a) Unikonta
b) Chlorophytes
c) Excavates
d) Amoebozoans
e) These groups are unrelated and therefore are not in the same clade.
23 Which of the following traits is NOT a shared derived trait (synapomorphy) of the land plants that separates
them from closely related algae?
a) protected and dependent embryo
b) apical meristems
c) thick-walled spores
d d) chloroplasts
e) all the above
24 Red algae, green algae, and land plants all belong to
a) Unikonta
b b) Archaeplastida
c) Rhizaria
d) Chromalveolata
e) Excavata
25 In this section of a scientific paper, you will evaluate the meaning of your results in terms of the original question and hypothesis and point out their biological significance by comparing them to other studies.
a) Abstract
b) Results
c) Introduction
d d) Discussion
e) Materials and Methods
26 I mentioned an example of a symbiotic relationship in lab and class that often appears as a "crusty" organism on rocks or trees. It was a(n)_____ which is a fungus and a(n)_______
a) plant, algae
b) algae, plant
c) lichen, plant
d d) lichen, algae
e) algae, lichen
27 Bacteria are known for the many roles they play in biological communities. Which of the following is the rarest role for this group of organisms?
a a) Pathogen
b) Digestive aid
c) Nitrogen and sulfru processor in soils
d) Decomposer
e) Industry and agricultural use
28 The two advances or characteristics of the eukaryotes as a group that have enabled their great diversity are: 
a) asexual reproduction and multicellularity
b) asexual reproduction and abody cavity
c c) sexual reproduction and multicellularity
d) body cavity and an exoskeleton
29 ln life cycles with an alternation of generations, multicellular haploid forms alternate with
a) unicellular haploid forms.
b) unicellular diploid fonns.
c) multicellular haploid forms.
d d) multicellular diploid forms.
30 The thallus of a brown algae is very plantlike, including a "stem" known as a
a) holdfast
b) blade
c c) stipe
d) gametophyte
e) flagellum
31 Protists are key primary producers in
a a) Aquatic communities
b) Terrestrial communities
c) Cave and other subterranean communities
d) Desert communities
e) None of the above, all protists are heterotrophs
32 in order to "reproduce" a virus must infect a______
a) human
b) bacteria
c) parakeet
d d) living cell
33 One example of bacteria doing "good" was their ____ relationship with certain plants (e.g., beans), providing the plants with nitrogen in return for carbohydrates and a place to live.
a) autotrophic
b b) mutualistic
c) parasitic
d) chemoautrophic
e) predatory
34 In general, what is the primary ecological role of prokaryotes?
a) parasitizing eukaryotes, thus causing diseases
b b) breaking down organic matter
c) metabolizing materials in extreme environments
d) adding methane to the atrnosphere
e) serving as primary producers in terrestrial environments
35 One line of evidence for the theory of Endosymbiosis is
a) some cellular organelles are encased in membranes that are very similar to the cell membrane
b) some cellular organelles have their own DNA
c) symbiotic relationships are relatively common
d d) all the above
e) none ofthe above
36 Land plants share several key traits with this group, making it the sister group to plants.
a) Chlorophytes
b) Bryophytes
c) Red Algae
d d) Charophytes
e) Embryophytes
37 The condition in which two or more different species live together in a very close, intimate relationship (for example, corals have algae living inside of them).
a) Cladogenesis
b) Eukaryogenesis
c) Endocytosis
d d) Symbiosis
38 The atmosphere is about 78% nitrogen gas, yet most organisms cannot use nitrogen in this form. Only a few types of bacteria, and no other organisms, have the ability to fix atmospheric nitrogen and thus make it available for use by other organisms.
a a) True
b) False
39 Some bacteria exhibit metabolic cooperation and produce polysaccharides and proteins that stick to the cells but also the substrate, often including other organisms and materials and causing the surface to be "slimy." This situation could be found in your gut, on your teeth, or on a rock in a stream and is known as a
a) parasitic relationship
b b) biofilm
c) conjugation
d) binary fision
e) endospores
40 Some biologists think that viruses should not be classified as living organisms because
a) they do not have a cellular structure.
b) they infect all cellular forms of life.
c) they depend on cellular organisms in order to replicate.
d) Both a and b
e e) Both a and c
41 We have used this organism in lab. What is the scientific nalne of this organism?
a) Amphipoda
b) Turbatrix aceti
c) Crustacea
d) Tenebrio molitor
e e) Daphnia magna
42 Bacteria can form ____ that are resistant to harsh conditions for long periods of time.
a) sperm
b) antibodies
c c) endospores
d) pathogens
e) seeds
43 Which of the following was not a challenge for survival of the first land plants?
a) reproduction
b) obtaining nutients from the soil
c) desiccation
d d) animal predation
e) all were major challenges to the earliest plants
44 Fungi and_____play the leading roles in decomposition of dead organic matter, making the nutrients available for other organisms.
a) Plants
b) Protists
c) Vertebrates
d d) Bacteria
e) Viruses
45 Stramenopiles include large multicellular organisms such as brown algae, but also includes highly ornate unicellular organisms with silica cell walls called
a) water molds
b) slime molds
c c) diatoms
d) foraminiferans
e) homworts
46 Green algae differ from land plants in that many green algae
a) are heterotrophs.
b b) are unicellular.
c) have chloroplasts.
d) have alternation of generations.
e) have cell walls containing cellulose.
47 Some bacteria obtain their energy by oxidizing inorganic substances such as ammonia or nitrite. For example, entire ecosystems exist near volcanic vents on the ocean floor because bacteria can oxidize hydrogen sulfide. These bacteria are metabolically categorized as
a) photoautotrophs
b b) chemoautotrophs (chemolithotrophs)
c) photoheterotrophs
d) chemoheterotrophs
48 Which one of the following diseases is not caused by bacteria?
a) Lyme disease
b b) AIDS
c) tuberculosis (TB)
d) Cholera
e) Plague
49 Which of the following is NOT an example of a mutualistic relationship involving protists? 
a) A type of wood-digesting excavate living in the gut of termites and wood roaches
b) Some dynoflagellates and corals
c c) Plasmodium and humans
d) All are mutualistic
e) None are mutualistic
50 Amoebozoans (amoebas and close relatives) feed
a a) by engulfing food items through endocytosis.
b) by secreting enzymes that digest their food extra-cellularly, then absorbing the digested nutrients.
c) by absorbing light energy and converting it to chemical energy.
d) by forming symbiotic relationships with various types of green algae.
e) by inserting long, thin pseudopodia into their prey and sucking the insides out.
51 The process of nitrogen fixation is the:
a) uptake of atmospheric nitrogen by plants such as beans.
b b) conversion of atmospheric nitrogen into ammonia or a "biologically available" compound.
c) production of nitrogen-bearing compounds in plants.
d) release of nitrogen into the atmosphere.
e) release of ammonia into the atmosphere.
52 Organisms that give birth to living young rather than eggs are called
a) Semelparous
b) Oviparous
c c) Viviparous
d) Iteroparous
e) Endosymbionts
53 Giardia intestinalis (lamblia) is an intestinal parasite that causes severe diarrhea in humans. It belongs to the clade
a a) Excavata
b) Stramenopiles
c) Rhizaria
d) Amoebozoans
e) Alveolates
54 Why is it difficult to cure or develop a vaccine for AIDS or even the common cold?
a) some bacteria change or mutate very quickly
b b) some viruses change or mutate very quickly
c) we are not sure what causes these diseases
d) these bacteria are covered by a protective capsule
e) This is not true. We now have cures for both.
55 These organisms are amoeba-like, multinucleate, often colorful, large enough to see, and feed by slowly streaming over the substrate engulfrng food particles as they move.
a) Ciliates
b b) Plasmodial slime molds
c) Diatoms
d) Dinoflagellates
e) Radiolarians
56 Root nodules on many plants of the legume (bean) family contain
a) cyanobacteria.
b) Nitrosococcus bacteria.
c c) Rhizobium bacteria.
d) Pseudomonas bacteria.
e) Nitrobacter bacteria.
57 A phenomenon called "red tide" can cause massive fish and invertebrate kills in coastal waters and is the result of a "bloom" of dinoflagellates. The clade that includes this group and others is
a) Excavata
b) Stramenopiles
c) Rhizaria
d) Amoebozoans
e e) Alveolates
58 Many vascular plants and perhaps the first land plants depended on symbiotic relationships with fungi. One of these is______ which are associations between fungi and the roots of plants which allow the plant to take up additional water and minerals.
a) Lichens
b) Nodules such as seen in lab
c c) Mycorrhizae
d) Nitrogen fxation
59 Which of the following genera contains species which are the caustive agent of malaria:
a) Giardia;
b b) Plasmodium;
c) Trypanosoma;
d) All of these;
e) none ofthese
60 A collection of cells that are permanently associated, but in which little or no integration of cellular activities
a) Single-celled organism
b) Aggregates
c c) Colonies
d) Multicellular
e) Cladistic
61 A eudaimonist believes that the good equals
a a)justice, 
b) happiness, 
d) pleasure
62 Common Morality Theory is a specific type of which category of normative ethical theory?
a a) deontological, 
b) consequentialist, 
c) ideal goods, 
d) none ofthe above
63 A hedonist believes that the good equals
b) happiness, 
c) beauty, 
d d) pleasure
64 Aldo Leopold championed the "land ethic" which a form of Ideal Goods Theory. This is a specific type of which category of normative ethical theory?
a) deontological, 
b b) consequentialist, 
c) eudaimonistic, 
d) none of the above

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