24 September 2014

Transport of Fatty Acids in the Body

How do Fatty Acids get from the stomach and intestines into the liver?
And how do they get from the liver to adipocytes?

-Absorbed as FA and monoacylglycerol into the mucosal cell
-In mucosal cell, it gets combined with other lipids and proteins into a chylomicron
- Transported via the lymph system

TRENDS in lipoprotein size and density
Chylomicrons, VLDL, IDL, LDL, HDL (in order of density)
As density goes up, the particle mass decreases and % protein increase, % Triglyceride decreases
Chylomicron transported to liver via lymph
From liver, LDL transports to other tissue
From peripheral tissue to the liver, HDL
Bile salts will dump some fatty acids into the intestines.

Palmitate is the primary FA produced by the liver. 

Stored in adipocites as triacylglycerols and protected by perilipin
Epinepherine signaling will phosphorylate Hormone Sensitive lipase and perilipin, allowing TAGs to be broken down into FFAs. 
Free fatty acids move into the serum and attach to albumin. 

NOTE: In the past research was inconsistent about whether or not glucagon acted on adipocytes to release FFA. Recent research has almost excluded this possibility by showing that in vivo, glucagon does not release fatty acids, but epinepherine and glucocorticoids do. However, glucagon has some effect on these two hormones.
Check this Glucagon article

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